# Mathematics Classes

## Algebra 1

9th grade

Required

Two Semesters

Prerequisites: Completion of Pre-Algebra or 8th Grade Math

Algebra is the foundation of all mathematics to follow. Students will study the following topic areas: number systems and number sense; expressions, equations, and inequalities; functions; linear functions; quadratic equations and functions; exponential and log functions, and polynomial functions. This course improves a student’s development of problem-solving skills and effective communication of possible solutions.

## Geometry

10th grade

Required

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Successful completion (D- or better) of both Algebra 1A and 1B

Geometry is the second year in the required mathematics program of study. Students will study the following topics: mathematical reasoning and proof; lines and angles; triangles and trigonometry; quadrilaterals; circles; solids, and transformations. Emphasis will be on both plane (two-dimensional) and solid (three-dimensional) geometry, and students will advance their understanding of the relationships between algebra and geometry in problem solving.

## Algebra 2

11th grade

Required

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Geometry

Algebra II – A&B is a one-credit, two-semester course that will further develop and reinforce algebraic and geometric concepts, continuing the required sequence in mathematics study. Students will focus on the following topics: polynomials; functions; trigonometric functions; systems; matrices; sequences and series; counting principles and probability; and statistics. Students will gain an in-depth understanding of problem solving and sound mathematical communication of ideas.

## Algebra 2 (STEM)

9th - 11th grade

Required

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Successful completion of Algebra 1 and Geometry, Teacher Recommendation, and a strong desire to continue on with advanced mathematics courses (including, but not limited to: Advanced Math (Pre-calc), IB Math SL, AP Statistics, AP Calculus, AP Physics, AP Chemistry, IB Physics, IB Chemistry)

Algebra 2 STEM is a one-credit, two-semester course that will further develop and reinforce algebraic and geometric concepts, continuing the required sequence in mathematics study. Students will focus on the following topics: polynomials; functions; trigonometric functions; systems; sequences and series; exponential and logarithmic functions; vectors; rational functions; and statistics. Students will gain an in-depth understanding of problem solving and sound mathematical communication of ideas. Students will be expected to complete various cross-curricular projects throughout the school year.

## Algebra 2A Extended (Parts 1 and 2) and Algebra 2B Extended (Parts 3 and 4)

11th grade

Required

Four Semesters

Prerequisite: Algebra 1, Geometry and teacher-parent recommendation.

Algebra 2 Extended – is a two-credit, four-semester course that will further develop and reinforce algebraic and geometric concepts, continuing the required sequence in mathematics study. This course is sequenced over a two-year period, allowing learners to study at an extended pace that provides the opportunity for additional practice. Students will focus on the following topics: polynomials; functions; trigonometric functions; conics; sequences and series; counting principles and probability; and statistics. Students will gain an in-depth understanding of problem solving and sound mathematical communication of ideas.

## Trigonometry

***NOT OFFERED IN 2024-2025 SCHOOL YEAR***

11th-12th grades

Elective

One Semester

Prerequisite: Successful completion of Algebra 2.

When offered, Trigonometry is a one semester class in which students will be studying: Review of basic geometry related to trigonometry including the distance and midpoint formula, review of functions, and the Pythagorean Theorem. Students will study right triangle trigonometry and the use of the unit circle. The use of all six trig functions will be taught in all aspects including a graphing chapter with transformations. Students will also study linear and angular velocity with application of radian measure.

## Probability and Statistics

11th-12th grades

Elective

One Semester

Required background course: Algebra 2. It is highly recommended that students have earned a “C” or better in both sections of Algebra 2

Probability is the study of chance occurrences, and statistics is the study of numerical data important to business, psychology, sociology, and economics, as well as other sciences. Probability topics include mutually exclusive events, addition and multiplication rules, tree diagrams, Venn diagrams, binomial probabilities, permutations and combinations. Statistics topics include graphing techniques for presenting data, measures of central tendency, measures of spread, measures of position, outliers, linear regression, and the Normal distribution. A graphing calculator will be used throughout the course.

## Statistics in Sports

11th-12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Counts as Senior math requirement

Required background course: Completion of both semesters of Algebra 2 with a grade of at least C+. This course may be taken concurrently with Advanced Math, IB Math AA SL or AP Calculus AB/BC.

Students will learn the principles of statistical reasoning in a way that helps prepare them for college and careers in a data-saturated world. This course will cover many of the same topics as AP Statistics but through the context of sports. Topics covered will go well beyond batting averages; students will analyze real, current sports data and use critical thinking skills to answer questions like, "Is there a home-field advantage in the NFL?' or "What is LeBron James' TRUE ability?"

## Discrete Mathematics

12th grades

Elective

One Semester

Prerequisite: Algebra 2. It is highly recommended that students have earned a “C” or better in both sections of Algebra 2.

Discrete math is designed to make mathematics more meaningful and compelling by focusing on familiar, real-life events and situations. Students will be doing reasoning, problem solving, game theory, logic, combinatory, counting and relations, and computability. By emphasizing reasoning, problem solving, and connections among math topics, students will be able to explore the impact of math on the world around them and in their own lives.

## Advanced Mathematics (Pre-Calculus)

***NOT OFFERED IN 2024-2025 SCHOOL YEAR - REPLACED WITH AP PRECALCULUS***

11th-12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Algebra 2 STEM; “C” or better highly recommended or Algebra 2 Regular; "B" or better.

Advanced Mathematics will focus on preparing college-bound students for the study of calculus. Areas of concentration include linear relations and functions, systems, families, polynomial and rational functions, conic sections, angles, degree measure, trig functions, and inverse trig functions, trig identities and equations, vectors, parametric equations, polar coordinates and complex numbers, exponential and log functions, sequences and series, math inductions, combinatorics and probability, statistics and data analysis, and introduction to calculus. The emphasis in this course is on college entry and preparation for a rigorous college-level math course.

## AP Precalculus

11th-12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Algebra 2 STEM; “C” or better highly recommended or Algebra 2 Regular; "B" or better.

AP Precalculus centers on functions modeling dynamic phenomena. This research-based exploration of functions is designed to better prepare students for college-level calculus and provide grounding for other mathematics and science courses. In this course, students study a broad spectrum of function types that are foundational for careers in mathematics, physics, biology, health science, business, social science, and data science. Furthermore, as AP Precalculus may be the last mathematics course of a student’s secondary education, the course is structured to provide a coherent capstone experience rather than exclusively focusing on preparation for future courses.

Throughout this course, students develop and hone symbolic manipulation skills, including solving equations and manipulating expressions (with and without a calculator), for the many function types throughout the course. College Course Equivalent AP Precalculus is designed to be the equivalent of a first semester college precalculus course. AP Precalculus provides students with an understanding of the concepts of college algebra, trigonometry, and additional topics that prepare students for further college level mathematics courses.

Students who are successful in this challenging applied mathematics course tend to be highly self-motivated and have a strong work ethic. Students may be required to complete summer work prior to the start of the class. Students have the opportunity to earn college credit by earning a qualifying score on the AP exam in May.

## IB Math AA SL

11th-12th grades

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Successful completion of Algebra 2 or Algebra 2 STEM ; "C" or better highly recommended

IB Math SL is a rigorous two-semester course of study presenting a unified approach to the many areas of mathematics. This one-year course is intended for students who are looking for a strong background in math as preparation for future studies in the sciences, engineering, economics, psychology, and business administration. In addition to the math topics to be studied, there is an emphasis on effective communication of mathematical concepts and relationships. IB Math AA SL is a course equivalent to a Pre-Calculus course. It is rigorous, moves quickly, and sets the focus on mathematical thought and making deeper connections with STEM projects throughout the curriculum. Topics include numbers and algebra; functions; geometry and trigonometry; statistics and probability; and beginning calculus. Students will develop skills in mathematical modeling and analysis, as well as a greater understanding of the relationships between math topics. IB Math AA SL requires college-level performance and work habits. A three-hour external IB examination is given at the end of the year for students who sign up to take it.

## AP Calculus AB

11th-12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Advanced Math or IB Math AA SL with a “C” or better or teacher recommendation

Upon completion of AP Calculus AB, students will understand how to use mathematical language to describe concepts and relationships between concepts. Throughout their coursework, students will use the “Rule of Four” for problem-solving. Students will be asked to solve problems algebraically or analytically, support our results graphically and numerically (with and without a calculator), and then interpret the results in the context of the original problem verbally and in writing. Students will use technology to enhance and support their proofs and problem-solving techniques, but will also recognize that the calculator itself does not give proof of a concept. The concepts that will be studied include functions and equations, limits and continuity, derivatives and their applications, integrals and their applications, and differential equations and mathematical modeling.

## AP Calculus BC

11th -12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Advanced Math or IB Math AA SL with a “B+” or better or teacher recommendation

AP Calculus BC focuses on students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provides experience with methods and applications. Through the use of big ideas of calculus (e.g., modeling change, approximation and limits, and analysis of functions), the course becomes a cohesive whole, rather than a collection of unrelated topics. The course requires students to use definitions and theorems to build arguments and justify conclusions. The course features a multi-representational approach to calculus, with concepts, results, and problems expressed graphically, numerically, analytically, and verbally. Students will be asked to solve problems algebraically or analytically, support our results graphically and numerically (with and without a calculator), and then interpret the results in the context of the original problem verbally and in writing. A sustained emphasis on clear communication of methods, reasoning, justifications, and conclusions is essential. AP Calculus BC is designed to be the equivalent to both first and second semester college calculus courses.

Students who are successful in this challenging applied mathematics course tend to be highly self-motivated and have a strong work ethic. Students may be required to complete summer work prior to the start of the class. Students have the opportunity to earn college credit by earning a qualifying score on the AP exam in May.

## AP Statistics

11th-12th grades

Elective

Two Semesters

Prerequisite: Completion of one or more of the following courses with a grade of B- or better: Statistics & Probability, Statistics in Sports, Advanced Math (Pre-Calculus), IB Math AA SL

AP Statistics is designed to be the equivalent of an introductory college statistics course. Students study the following four main topics: exploring data, sampling and experimentation, probability and simulation, and statistical inference. Students who are successful in this challenging applied mathematics course tend to be highly self-motivated and have a strong work ethic. Students have the opportunity to earn college credit by earning a qualifying score on the AP exam in May. A graphing calculator is required for this course.